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米国著作権法、スマートフォンの脱獄を合法と認める

Ittousai , @Ittousai_ej
2010年7月27日, 午後05:29 in Copyright
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米国著作権局が3年に一度おこなわれる著作権法の例外条項の見直し結果を発表し、携帯電話の脱獄 (Jailbreak) は合法であることを認めました。

スマートフォンで動くソフトウェアのメーカーによる制限、たとえば iPhone ではアップルの審査を経てApp Store で流通するアプリしかインストールできないといった制約を回避する行為いわゆる脱獄 (Jailbreak) は法的に曖昧なまま、なんとなくグレーゾーンらしい、メーカーが禁じてるんだからやっちゃいけないことらしい、と後ろ暗い扱いを受けてきましたが、少なくとも米国の著作権法的には、アプリの相互運用性を確保する目的であれば合法と確認されたことになります。

米国の著作権法には、著作権の存在する作品への技術的アクセス制限手段(いわゆるDRMなど) の回避行為を違法とする条項(いわゆるDMCAの一部)があり、「DVDのCSSを解除してネットでばらまいた」や「コピーして海賊版を売った」など真っ黒な行為ではなくても、いわば「被害者」がいなくても著作権法違反に問われる可能性があります。ただしこれでは、たとえば普通の本では法的に認められている引用などがデジタルになったとたんにできなくなる、いわばメーカーがプログラム的に法律を「上書き」することにお墨付きを与えてしまう問題が指摘されてきました。

このため、数年に一度関係団体などからのヒアリングを経て、米国著作権局を統括する議会図書館長の名で「技術的アクセス制限手段の回避禁止についての免責条項」を定める仕組みがあり、今回あらたに発表されたのはその対象となる「作品」の種類と条件についてです。具体的には、脱獄についてはこんな文言になっています:
(2) Computer programs that enable wireless telephone handsets to execute software applications, where circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of enabling interoperability of such applications, when they have been lawfully obtained, with computer programs on the telephone handset.

(無線電話機においてソフトウェアアプリケーションの実行を可能にするコンピュータプログラム。合法的に入手したアプリケーションの相互運用を可能にすることのみを目的として制限の回避がおこなわれる場合。)
下に続きます。

要するに、 App Storeの審査を「アップルの純正ソフトと役割がかぶるから」やら「アップルについて言及しているから」などよく分からん理由で落とされたアプリなど、 いわゆる正規の手段で使えないソフトウェアがあっても、それを動かすためであれば脱獄そのものについては著作権法違反にあたらないことになります。またこのほか今回の見直しに含まれるのは、「DVDのCSSを解除して一部をコピーすること。ただし批評または コメントの目的で新たな作品の一部に組み込む場合、また教育目的、ドキュメンタリーフィルムの製作、非営利いずれかの目的のために必要である場合」。たとえば正当に入手した市販映画の一部を引用し てつっこみをいれる非営利 YouTube ビデオの作成など。

さらに携帯電話では、携帯通信ネットワークに接続するためにファームウェアもしくはソフトウェアの制限を回避するいわゆるアンロックも含まれています。ただし中古の携帯電話をリサイクルする目的のため。そのほかは音声読み上げツールを使うために電子書籍のプロテクトを解除する、ビデオゲームの脆弱性やセキュリティ上の問題を調査する目的の制限解除など。

ただしいずれも「~が目的の場合」と条件付きの免責であって、 違法に入手したアプリを動かすなどそもそも違法な行為が目的の場合は当然ながら対象になりません。またアップルなりほかの会社がアクセス制限を組み込むことも強化することも禁じていなければ、「メーカーは正当な目的があればJailbreak / root 取得手段を提供しなければならない」でもありません。メーカーはその気になればEULAで「同意します」をクリックしていたのだから契約違反だ、と主張することもできます(ヤブヘビを恐れなければ)。さらに米国著作権法には「アクセス制限の回避を主要な目的とした技術やプログラムの配布」を禁じる条項が別にあり、脱獄ツールの配布はこちらにひっかかるかもしれないという問題も残されています。

善良な脱獄者や正当な目的なのに制限で困っていた場合には大きな勝利ではあるものの、そもそも明確な権利としてではなく一時的な例外として認められただけ、また正当に入手したDVDやストリーミングサービスをLinuxなど非対応環境で観るためのデコードはあいかわらず免責に含まれないなと、手放しで喜べる状態ではありません。続きはステートメントの原文。

Statement of the Librarian of Congress Relating to Section 1201 Rulemaking

Section 1201(a)(1) of the copyright law requires that every three years I am to determine whether there are any classes of works that will be subject to exemptions from the statute's prohibition against circumvention of technology that effectively controls access to a copyrighted work. I make that determination at the conclusion of a rulemaking proceeding conducted by the Register of Copyrights, who makes a recommendation to me. Based on that proceeding and the Register's recommendation, I am to determine whether the prohibition on circumvention of technological measures that control access to copyrighted works is causing or is likely to cause adverse effects on the ability of users of any particular classes of copyrighted works to make noninfringing uses of those works. The classes of works that I designated in the previous proceeding expire at the end of the current proceeding unless proponents of a class prove their case once again.

This is the fourth time that I have made such a determination. Today I have designated six classes of works. Persons who circumvent access controls in order to engage in noninfringing uses of works in these six classes will not be subject to the statutory prohibition against circumvention.

As I have noted at the conclusion of past proceedings, it is important to understand the purposes of this rulemaking, as stated in the law, and the role I have in it. This is not a broad evaluation of the successes or failures of the DMCA. The purpose of the proceeding is to determine whether current technologies that control access to copyrighted works are diminishing the ability of individuals to use works in lawful, noninfringing ways. The DMCA does not forbid the act of circumventing copy controls, and therefore this rulemaking proceeding is not about technologies that control copying. Nor is this rulemaking about the ability to make or distribute products or services used for purposes of circumventing access controls, which are governed by a different part of section 1201.

In this rulemaking, the Register of Copyrights received 19 initial submissions proposing 25 classes of works, many of them duplicative in subject matter, which the Register organized into 11 groups and published in a notice of proposed rulemaking seeking comments on the proposed classes. Fifty-six comments were submitted. Thirty-seven witnesses appeared during the four days of public hearings in Washington and in Palo Alto, California. Transcripts of the hearings, copies of all of the comments, and copies of other information received by the Register have been posted on the Copyright Office's website.

The six classes of works are:

(1) Motion pictures on DVDs that are lawfully made and acquired and that are protected by the Content Scrambling System when circumvention is accomplished solely in order to accomplish the incorporation of short portions of motion pictures into new works for the purpose of criticism or comment, and where the person engaging in circumvention believes and has reasonable grounds for believing that circumvention is necessary to fulfill the purpose of the use in the following instances:

(i) Educational uses by college and university professors and by college and university film and media studies students;

(ii) Documentary filmmaking;
(iii) Noncommercial videos

(2) Computer programs that enable wireless telephone handsets to execute software applications, where circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of enabling interoperability of such applications, when they have been lawfully obtained, with computer programs on the telephone handset.

(3) Computer programs, in the form of firmware or software, that enable used wireless telephone handsets to connect to a wireless telecommunications network, when circumvention is initiated by the owner of the copy of the computer program solely in order to connect to a wireless telecommunications network and access to the network is authorized by the operator of the network.

(4) Video games accessible on personal computers and protected by technological protection measures that control access to lawfully obtained works, when circumvention is accomplished solely for the purpose of good faith testing for, investigating, or correcting security flaws or vulnerabilities, if:

(i) The information derived from the security testing is used primarily to promote the security of the owner or operator of a computer, computer system, or computer network; and
(ii) The information derived from the security testing is used or maintained in a manner that does not facilitate copyright infringement or a violation of applicable law.

(5) Computer programs protected by dongles that prevent access due to malfunction or damage and which are obsolete. A dongle shall be considered obsolete if it is no longer manufactured or if a replacement or repair is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace; and

(6) Literary works distributed in ebook format when all existing ebook editions of the work (including digital text editions made available by authorized entities) contain access controls that prevent the enabling either of the book's read-aloud function or of screen readers that render the text into a specialized format.

All of these classes of works find their origins in classes that I designated at the conclusion of the previous rulemaking proceeding, but some of the classes have changed due to differences in the facts and arguments presented in the current proceeding. For example, in the previous proceeding I designated a class that enable film and media studies professors to engage in the noninfringing activity of making compilations of film clips for classroom instruction. In the current proceeding, the record supported an expansion of that class to enable the incorporation of short portions of motion pictures into documentary films and noncommercial videos for the purpose of criticism or comment, when the person engaging in circumvention reasonably believes that it is necessary to fulfill that purpose. I agree with the Register that the record demonstrates that it is sometimes necessary to circumvent access controls on DVDs in order to make these kinds of fair uses of short portions of motion pictures.

関連キーワード: copyright, drm, jailbreak, law, usa
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